The Roman Amphitheater is located in Sharia Youssef, on Midan al-Gamhouriya, Alexandria. This Theatre was the only one discovered in Alexandria and it dates back to the First and Second Centuries A.D. The Theatre consists of auditorium and skene and between them there is the place of the orchestra. The steps of the theatre are made of marble except for the lower step which was made of red granite. The floor of the skene is decorated with mosaic taking the shape of some geometrical motifs such as circle, rectangle, and triangle.
Pyramid of Menkaure (Mycerinus)
Pyramid of Khafre (Chephren)
Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops)
For nearly 4000 years, the extraordinary shape, impeccable geometry and sheer bulk of the Giza Pyramids have invited the obvious question: ‘How were we built, and why?’ Centuries of research have given us parts of the answer. We know they were massive tombs constructed on the orders of the pharaohs by teams of workers tens-of-thousands strong. This is supported by the discovery of a pyramid-builders’ settlement, complete with areas for large-scale food production and medical facilities. Ongoing excavations on the Giza Plateau have provided more evidence that the workers were not the slaves of Hollywood tradition, but an organized workforce of Egyptian farmers. During the flood season, when the Nile covered their fields, the same farmers could have been redeployed by the highly structured bureaucracy to work on the pharaoh’s tomb. In this way, the Pyramids can almost be seen as an ancient job-creation scheme. And the flood waters made it easier to transport building stone to the site.
A maze of ancient and modern churches and monasteries, set within the bounds of a former Roman fortress, Coptic Cairo is a fascinating counterpoint to the rest of the city, and holds a beautiful museum. You can visit the oldest mosque and the oldest synagogue in Cairo, as well as a dynamic arts centre and the quality shopping complex of Souq al-Fustat. There are three entrances to the Coptic compound: a sunken staircase across from the footbridge over the metro gives access to a section of narrow cobbled alleyways, most churches and the synagogue; the main gate in the centre is for the Coptic Museum; and another doorway further south leads to the Hanging Church. At one time there were more than 20 churches clustered within less than 1 sq km; more survive than are liste dhere.
Despite the number of minarets on the skyline in this part of the city, ‘Islamic’ Cairo is a bit of a misnomer, as this area is not significantly more religious than other districts. But for many centuries it was one of the power centers of the Islamic empire, and its monuments are some of the most resplendent architecture inspired by Islam. Today, traditional galabeya (men’s full-length robes) still outnumber jeans, buildings and crowds press closer, and the din comes less from car traffic and more from the cries of street vendors and the clang of small workshops. Here the streets are a warren of blind alleys, and it’s easy to lose not just a sense of direction but also a sense of time.
Cairo’s sights are spread all over the city, so it makes sense to do things in one area before moving on to the next – but don’t try to cram too much into one day, or you’ll soon be overwhelmed. The awe-inspiring but cluttered Egyptian Museum requires at least half a day, and ideally two or three shorter visits. Khan al-Khalili and most of the medieval monuments are in Islamic Cairo, and you’ll need a full day or several visits at different times of the day. Definitely allow a few hours of aimless wandering in this areas.